Legal

 

IRIS Special 2017-1: Media coverage of elections: the legal framework in Europe

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 12/07/2017

This report provides an overview of the most recent rules, case-law and policies across Europe with regard to the coverage of elections and referenda in the various media. Looking into broadcasting and print media, as well as the online dimension, it gives an insight into the differing degrees of regulation that political communication is experiencing within the different contexts, and shows – maybe quite surprisingly – that broadcast media remain the most regulated ones (as they remain the most influential), and that social media, despite their increased use by “crooked” politicians, remain substantially unregulated.  More


IRIS Extra 2017-1: Judicial practice on media freedom in Russia: the role of the Supreme Court

Authors: Andrei Richter, Media Academy Bratislava

Published: 17/05/2017

This article of Andrei Richter provides an overview of the way Russian jurisprudence has been influenced by the Supreme Court's interpretative guidelines since their adoption.  More


IRIS Plus 2017-1: Exceptions and limitations to copyright

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 17/05/2017

This IRIS Plus aims at providing a general overview of the rationale and the evolution of the exceptions and limitations to copyright in the numerous international treaties and European directives devoted to this topic, and in the consequent ratifications and implementations at national level. Particular attention is given to the challenges deriving from the digital revolution, such as the adaptations of the rules concerning temporary acts of reproduction, private copying and exceptions for cultural heritage institutions to the online context.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. III - Freedom of Expression, the Media and Journalists. Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (edition 2016)

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory.

Published: 23/03/2017

This revised edition contains summaries of over 250 judgments or decisions by the Court and provides hyperlinks to the full text of each of the summarised judgments or decisions. It can be read in various ways : for initial orientation in the steadily growing Article 10 case-law; for refreshing one’s knowledge of that case-law; for quick reference and checking, as well as for substantive research.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-3: VOD, platforms and OTT: which promotion obligations for European works?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Christian Grece, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 11/01/2017

The present issue of IRIS Plus starts with an outlook of the latest market developments, before exploring the regulatory context, and sets out international and European obligations as well as national frameworks. The report then continues considering self- and co-regulatory tools and case-law, and provides an outline of the main aspects of the current reform of the AVMSD in this field.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-2: Audiovisual sports rights – between exclusivity and right to information

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/10/2016

The increasing relevance of audiovisual sports rights, especially given this summer’s European football championship and Summer Olympics, has prompted us to carry out a comprehensive exploration of the topic.  More


Third-party publication: The tax-based funding of the Finnish public service broadcaster Yle

Authors: Marina Österlund-Karinkanta, Yle

Published: 16/08/2016

As of 1 January 2013 a public broadcasting tax, the Yle tax, replaced the television (licence) fee as the source of funding for the Finnish public service broadcaster, Yle. This article describes the new funding model and how it has worked during its 3 ½ years so far. It is an innovative tax model built on and designed to suit the specific circumstances in Finland, with the aim of safeguarding Yle’s independence and the long-term development of its content services.  More


IRIS Extra 2016-2: Public service media in Transcaucasian countries

Authors: Ekaterina Abashina, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 13/07/2016

After detailing the context with some historical notes on their respective media markets and regulatory frameworks, the author discusses the statute of the governing bodies, the financing of PSB, and the appointment procedures of Board members. She then analyses their programming policies and their adaptation to the requirements set by the international organisations of which they are members. Each country is examined individually, with systematic cross-references and a comparative overview of similarities and differences between the three systems.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-1: On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 03/06/2016

Providers of VoD services originate from almost all links of the audiovisual value chain. They come from the traditional worlds of television channels and telecom operators, but also from film producers and distributors, content aggregators, video sharing platforms and even from audiovisual archives and public support funds. This complexity brings together business models with new actors and new roles, also in addition to the provision of new services and new consumption habits.  More


Analysis of the implementation of the provisions contained in the AVMSD concerning the protection of minors

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 21/04/2016

This report examines the issue of protection of minors in the EU28 and looks specifically at the implementation approaches of the AVMS Directive with regard to the following aspects concerning the protection of minors in audiovisual media services: classification systems; definitions of harmful content; tools and systems used by broadcasters and platform operators to support the protection of minors; and studies carried out in the field in the member states.  More


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