Diversity/Pluralism

 

IRIS Plus 2008-4: The Promotion of Cultural Diversity via New Media Technologies: An Introduction to the Challenges of Operationalisation

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/06/2008

This IRIS plus presupposes that it is important to clarify potential meanings of cultural diversity and arising concepts if we wish to experience cultural diversity in the form of concrete results. The need for clarification becomes more pressing with a view to technological advances which already by themselves, and all the more in tandem with vague concepts, challenge existing legal frameworks. This IRIS plus is a first and very useful step on a long way to go.  More


IRIS Plus 2008-2: Media Windows in Flux Challenges for Audiovisual Media Chronology

Authors: Martin Kuhr, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/04/2008

This IRIS plus does not deal with economic considerations, but with the legal framework on which an economic strategy, however it is chosen, must be built. The author begins by explaining how rules on media chronology have developed. On this basis, it is easy to see who defines the media windows according to which rules and why there are different models. The author also points out that media windows can have competition law implications that extend beyond the question, "Who gets which window?"  More


IRIS Special 2006 - Audiovisual Media Services without Frontiers - Implementing the Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

Working from the premise that after a revision of the TVwF Directive the rules of the two leading European instruments on broadcasting will be once more re-aligned, this publication seeks to explore the interplay between the Directive and the Convention. It will focus on monitoring and implementation issues that already gave rise to discussions in the past. The revision of the Directive matters only insofar as it may mitigate or intensify existing problems. To be clear, this publication will not deal with the concrete points that might set the two frameworks apart (points, which in any event, only become concrete after the finalisation of the revision of the Directive) until re-alignment takes place.  More


IRIS Special 2006 - Broadcasters' Obligations to Invest in Cinematographic Production

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

This IRIS Special describes the various ways in which the television industry supports cinematographic film – whether enshrined in law or on a voluntary basis, whether direct or indirect. It considers broadcasters' investment obligations in different European countries and investigates whether they are laid down in law, agreed in contracts or entered into voluntarily by broadcasters. It also explains the rules of procedure, discusses what broadcasters might receive in return and mentions some important economic factors. Where necessary or useful, this publication also contains information about national film funding mechanisms.  More


IRIS Plus 2006-4: Cultural and Regional Remits in Broadcasting

Authors: Thorsten Ader, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/08/2006

This edition of IRIS plus explores how broadcasters' remits may be closely bound up with culture and geography. In particular, the following article focuses on legal stipulations about respect for culture and territorial specificities, which have been the subject of transnational or regional agreements.  More


IRIS Plus 2006-2: Major Events and Reporting Rights

Authors: Max Schoenthal, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/04/2006

Starting with a brief explanation of the various links between major events, media and society, this article describes the provisions of European law on the broadcasting of major events.  More


IRIS Special 2005 - To Have or Not to Have Must-Carry Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

Must-carry rules are one string in the regulators' bow regarding their efforts to ensure that all viewers may enjoy a certain basic content package. The establishment of new distribution platforms for television content (mainly cable) seemed to call this aim into question. It was feared that without legislative intervention incoming platform operators might refuse to carry certain programmes or, alternatively, might use exclusivity contracts to take certain programmes away from traditional carriers. Under either scenario, the viewers' choice of platform would have become synonymous with their choice of content and the idea of universal content would have died.  More


IRIS Plus 2005-5: Application of EC Competition Policy regarding Agreements and State Aid in the Audiovisual Field

Authors: Laurence Mayer-Robitaille, Associate Expert, UNESCO - Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Paris

Published: 01/11/2005

This IRIS plus links up to the earlier IRIS plus 2003-6 on "European Public Film Support within the WTO Framework" in that both articles examine the double nature of audiovisual goods and services and its impact on supranational regulation.  More


IRIS Plus 2003-5: Horizontal Rating of Audiovisual Content in Europe. An Alternative to Multi-level Classification?

Authors: Carmen Palzer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken / Brussels

Published: 01/10/2003

This article discusses the horizontal rating of audiovisual content in Europe and rounds off our series on various aspects of "horizontal regulation".  More


IRIS Special 2001 - Television and Media Concentration - Regulatory Models on the National and the European Level

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2001

This book is intended first and foremost to contribute to a better understanding of the variety of legal problems and regulations that are relevant to limiting concentrations of power in the medium of television.  More


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