EU legal framework

 

IRIS Bonus 2015-2: Annotated bibliography on the protection of minors in a converged media environment

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 09/06/2015

This annotated bibliography aims at completing the IRIS plus on “The protection of minors in a converged media environment” with a basic gateway to the most recent reference documentation available for free on the internet.  More


Workshop - Empowering users: rating systems, protection tools and media literacy across Europe

Published: 12/02/2015

Workshop organised by the European Audiovisual Observatory and the European Platform of Regulatory Authorities European Youth Centre, Strasbourg - 15 December 2014  More


IRIS Plus 2014-4: The Influence of New Technologies on Copyright

Authors: Lucie Guibault and João Pedro Quintais, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 04/02/2015

Technology affects economics and economics affects regulation. This is generally how the chain operates. The rules usually come later, and sometimes they may become outdated.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-4: What Is an On-demand Service?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/09/2013

Few songwriters have captured the presentiment of change as Bob Dylan in his song "The Times They Are A-Changin'". Although written in a very particular period of the twentieth Century, its message is universal and therefore can be applied to virtually any moment in time. Indeed, the fight between the Old and the New is a constant in the history of Mankind. In that sense, Dylan's song perfectly fits the Internet age: while old media giants currently struggle with fast-paced technological developments, new online companies started by teenagers in garages and universities are taking the world by storm. The generational gap evoked by Dylan is also evident, with parents feeling that, paraphrasing the song's lyrics, their children's online activities are "beyond their command".  More


IRIS Plus 2013-3: Converged Media: Same Content, Different Laws?

Authors: Alexander Scheuer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2013

Convergence is no longer a future vision but can be experienced in the here and now. At least, this is true for those among us who possess a smart TV and manage to use its full technical potential. At the same time, media professionals never tire of pointing to the fact (and to supporting surveys) that for users traditional television still ranks high or even highest among the different media. Television screens are therefore one likely place for linear and non-linear audiovisual media services to meet. Thanks to the advanced technology employed they can in parallel function as an interface for other communication and information services. This turns television screens into a prime testing ground for consumers who wish to explore combined offers of formerly clearly distinct media and information services. Television screens are therefore also the place where consumers will learn whether or not the current legal framework takes care of their expectations regarding the protection of their interests.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-6: Protection of Minors and Audiovisual Content On-Demand

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Cristina Bachmeier, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/11/2012

On-demand services with audiovisual content are continuing to be more and more popular among users. One of the world's best known platforms is no doubt YouTube, which, according to Matthew Glotzbach, the company's EMEA Managing Director, currently has 800 million users a month who upload 72 hours of fi lm material every minute and watch videos totalling 4 billion hours every month (figures quoted from www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Medienwoche-Sender-und-Google-kaempfen-um-die-TV-Hoheit-1697883.html). As can be gathered from the European Commission's First Report on the application of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (COM(2012) 203 fi nal), there are a wide variety of video-on-demand (VoD) services, such as television broadcasters' catch-up TV offerings, which normally enable viewers to access via their websites (a selection of) audiovisual content for up to seven days after it has been aired. In addition, programmes stored on a continuous basis, or at least for a long period, are available from broadcasters' media libraries. In most cases, these services can be used free of charge because private providers in particular fi nance them through revenues from commercial communications.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-5: Must-carry: Renaissance or Reformation?

Authors: Nico van Eijk and Bart van der Sloot, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/09/2012

On 11 July 2012, the Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per il Lazio, an Italian administrative court in Rome decided on a case involving the Italian public service broadcaster RAI (TAR Lazio Decision n. 6320). It found RAI guilty of having violated its charter by encrypting its free-to-air TV channels, which made it impossible for Sky Italia to carry RAI channels on its platform.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-4: Exclusive Rights and Short Reporting

Authors: Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2012

2012 is often called a year of sports as both the Euro 2012 football championships and the Olympic Games will be held. Of course, there will be or have been world championships in other sports, such as the biathlon, ski flying, figure skating, indoor athletics, table tennis, windsurfing, billiards, cycling, badminton, ice hockey, speedway, shooting, orienteering, rowing, baseball, canoeing, wrestling, the triathlon, jujutsu, karate, dancing and swimming. To these may be added world title fights or matches, for example in boxing or chess, numerous European championships in various sports and even more numerous national championships, ATP tournaments, Formula I racing, FIS ski racing, football Champions League matches, etc.  More


IRIS Plus 2011-6: Limits to the Use of Personal Data

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Sebastian Schweda, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/10/2011

At the end of September, Facebook announced a plan to extend their service in order to, as it stated, enable users to create a “Life Archive” and thus offer an unlimited number of “friends” all the details and events of their own lives at the click of a mouse. Who would have thought twenty years ago that this project would on no account be understood as a continuation of Orwell’s 1984 but as an offer of a service and business model to be taken seriously? And who would have assumed at that time that, in the light of this and similar services, we would one day be discussing whether and how it would still be possible to exercise control over electronically available personal data? The answer might be that the founding fathers of the European Convention on Human Rights at least considered questions like these to be possible, since there are subjects that lead us to face challenges that date back a long way despite being dressed up in new clothes. In the context of personal data, the answer consists in finding a meaningful balance between the rights to freedom of information and freedom of expression on the one hand and the protection of the personality and the private sphere on the other, and it is these conflicting interests that the Convention has always clearly had in mind.  More


IRIS Plus 2011-3: Media Literacy

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/05/2011

Continuous learning is a well established concept to guarantee that graduation from school or university does not mark the end of studying the subjects related to one’s profession. The more an area of knowledge is apt to change the bigger the need to stay on one’s toes. Training on the job is certainly another way to handle the challenge but depending on the sophistication of the issues it may turn out to be a dead end.  More


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