International issues


IRIS Special 2017: Media coverage of elections: the legal framework in Europe

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 12/07/2017

This report provides an overview of the most recent rules, case-law and policies across Europe with regard to the coverage of elections and referenda in the various media. Looking into broadcasting and print media, as well as the online dimension, it gives an insight into the differing degrees of regulation that political communication is experiencing within the different contexts, and shows – maybe quite surprisingly – that broadcast media remain the most regulated ones (as they remain the most influential), and that social media, despite their increased use by “crooked” politicians, remain substantially unregulated.  More

IRIS plus 2004-5: The Legal Protection of Broadcast Signals

Authors: Lucie Guibault, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam & Roy Melzer, Law firm Gilat, Bareket & Co., Tel-Aviv (Israel)

Published: 01/11/2004

This IRIS plus contains important information on current legal protection of broadcast signals at international and European levels.  More

IRIS Special 2002 - Jurisdiction over Broadcasters in Europe - Report on a Round-table Discussion & Selection of Background Materials

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2002

What are the remaining difficulties in determining jurisdiction? What disputes were brought before the courts and how have they been solved? What clarifications should be made to European legislation? The workshop aimed to penetrate the many facets of these questions and to fuel the discussion with background information, problem analysis and expert knowledge. The results of this enterprise are reflected in the following "Report on a Round-table Discussion" published as an IRIS Special mirroring the title of the round-table discussion: "Jurisdiction over Broadcasters in Europe".  More

IRIS Special 2006 - Audiovisual Media Services without Frontiers - Implementing the Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

Working from the premise that after a revision of the TVwF Directive the rules of the two leading European instruments on broadcasting will be once more re-aligned, this publication seeks to explore the interplay between the Directive and the Convention. It will focus on monitoring and implementation issues that already gave rise to discussions in the past. The revision of the Directive matters only insofar as it may mitigate or intensify existing problems. To be clear, this publication will not deal with the concrete points that might set the two frameworks apart (points, which in any event, only become concrete after the finalisation of the revision of the Directive) until re-alignment takes place.  More

IRIS Special 2005 - To Have or Not to Have Must-Carry Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

Must-carry rules are one string in the regulators' bow regarding their efforts to ensure that all viewers may enjoy a certain basic content package. The establishment of new distribution platforms for television content (mainly cable) seemed to call this aim into question. It was feared that without legislative intervention incoming platform operators might refuse to carry certain programmes or, alternatively, might use exclusivity contracts to take certain programmes away from traditional carriers. Under either scenario, the viewers' choice of platform would have become synonymous with their choice of content and the idea of universal content would have died.  More

IRIS Bonus 2015-2: Annotated bibliography on the protection of minors in a converged media environment

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 09/06/2015

This annotated bibliography aims at completing the IRIS plus on “The protection of minors in a converged media environment” with a basic gateway to the most recent reference documentation available for free on the internet.  More

IRIS Plus 2007-2: Broadcasters' Access to Broadcasting Frequencies

Authors: Nicola Weißenborn, Institute of European Media Law (EMR)

Published: 01/03/2007

The aim of this article is to show how broadcasters obtain their frequencies and who lays down the standards for this process: how is spectrum organised, divided up and ultimately distributed? Who decides on the allocation of transmission capacities and how? This article will also look at new approaches and trends in spectrum management.  More

IRIS Plus 2000-1: Copyright and Related Rights in the Audiovisual Sector

Authors: Natali Helberger, Institute for Information Law, University of Amsterdam, Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez & Susanne Nikoltchev, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/02/2000

The following contribution informs on the situation in the field of copyright and related rights in the year 2000. It focuses on the then applicable regulation and ongoing developments concerning WIPO and the EC.  More

IRIS Plus 2003-4: Swings on the Horizontal - The Search for Consistency in European Advertising Law

Authors: Jan Kabel, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/09/2003

This IRIS plus addresses the horizontal regulation of advertising.  More

IRIS Plus 2004-1: Regulation of Minority-Language Broadcasting

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR) of the University of Amsterdam & Andrei Richter, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre (MMLPC)

Published: 01/02/2004

This IRIS plus considers whether - and if so, how – the use of minority languages in broadcasting is protected and promoted. It investigates the examples of Ireland, Latvia, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. This IRIS plus also contains information about the international legal framework which aims to determine how minority languages should be treated.  More

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