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IRIS Special 2017: Media coverage of elections: the legal framework in Europe

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 12/07/2017

This report provides an overview of the most recent rules, case-law and policies across Europe with regard to the coverage of elections and referenda in the various media. Looking into broadcasting and print media, as well as the online dimension, it gives an insight into the differing degrees of regulation that political communication is experiencing within the different contexts, and shows – maybe quite surprisingly – that broadcast media remain the most regulated ones (as they remain the most influential), and that social media, despite their increased use by “crooked” politicians, remain substantially unregulated.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-3: VOD, platforms and OTT: which promotion obligations for European works?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Christian Grece, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 11/01/2017

The present issue of IRIS Plus starts with an outlook of the latest market developments, before exploring the regulatory context, and sets out international and European obligations as well as national frameworks. The report then continues considering self- and co-regulatory tools and case-law, and provides an outline of the main aspects of the current reform of the AVMSD in this field.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-2: Audiovisual sports rights – between exclusivity and right to information

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/10/2016

The increasing relevance of audiovisual sports rights, especially given this summer’s European football championship and Summer Olympics, has prompted us to carry out a comprehensive exploration of the topic.  More


IRIS Extra 2016-2: Public service media in Transcaucasian countries

Authors: Ekaterina Abashina, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 13/07/2016

After detailing the context with some historical notes on their respective media markets and regulatory frameworks, the author discusses the statute of the governing bodies, the financing of PSB, and the appointment procedures of Board members. She then analyses their programming policies and their adaptation to the requirements set by the international organisations of which they are members. Each country is examined individually, with systematic cross-references and a comparative overview of similarities and differences between the three systems.  More


IRIS Plus 2016-1: On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 03/06/2016

Providers of VoD services originate from almost all links of the audiovisual value chain. They come from the traditional worlds of television channels and telecom operators, but also from film producers and distributors, content aggregators, video sharing platforms and even from audiovisual archives and public support funds. This complexity brings together business models with new actors and new roles, also in addition to the provision of new services and new consumption habits.  More


Analysis of the implementation of the provisions contained in the AVMSD concerning the protection of minors

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 21/04/2016

This report examines the issue of protection of minors in the EU28 and looks specifically at the implementation approaches of the AVMS Directive with regard to the following aspects concerning the protection of minors in audiovisual media services: classification systems; definitions of harmful content; tools and systems used by broadcasters and platform operators to support the protection of minors; and studies carried out in the field in the member states.  More


Die ungarische Regelung für den Schutz der Minderjährigen vor schädlichen Medieninhalten

Authors: Réka Sümegh, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/01/2012

This article was written in German and is available only in German. It describes the Hungarian regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


IRIS Special 2001 - Television and Media Concentration - Regulatory Models on the National and the European Level

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2001

This book is intended first and foremost to contribute to a better understanding of the variety of legal problems and regulations that are relevant to limiting concentrations of power in the medium of television.  More


IRIS Special 2006 - Broadcasters' Obligations to Invest in Cinematographic Production

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

This IRIS Special describes the various ways in which the television industry supports cinematographic film – whether enshrined in law or on a voluntary basis, whether direct or indirect. It considers broadcasters' investment obligations in different European countries and investigates whether they are laid down in law, agreed in contracts or entered into voluntarily by broadcasters. It also explains the rules of procedure, discusses what broadcasters might receive in return and mentions some important economic factors. Where necessary or useful, this publication also contains information about national film funding mechanisms.  More


IRIS Special 2005 - To Have or Not to Have Must-Carry Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

Must-carry rules are one string in the regulators' bow regarding their efforts to ensure that all viewers may enjoy a certain basic content package. The establishment of new distribution platforms for television content (mainly cable) seemed to call this aim into question. It was feared that without legislative intervention incoming platform operators might refuse to carry certain programmes or, alternatively, might use exclusivity contracts to take certain programmes away from traditional carriers. Under either scenario, the viewers' choice of platform would have become synonymous with their choice of content and the idea of universal content would have died.  More


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