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IRIS Special 2004 - Regulating Access to Digital Television - Technical Bottlenecks, Vertically-integrated Markets and New Forms of Media Concentration

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2004

Every single aspect of digital television is affected by the question of access control: the compilation and preparation of content to be transported; the transmission and reception of content (encrypted or not), including the necessary technical devices; content bundling; programme selection aids; and, finally, all the technical precautions that enable the viewer to actually receive content. The more of these elements that are offered by the same service provider, or in other words, the more the market structures are vertically integrated, the more serious the problem of access control becomes. In order to get to the bottom of these issues, in September 2003 the European Audiovisual Observatory, in partnership with the Institute for Information Law (IViR) and with the support of the Institute of European Media Law (EMR), organised a workshop on the theme of Vertical Limits – New Challenges for Media Regulation? The results of this workshop, together with further information, are set out in this IRIS Special.  More

IRIS Bonus 2015-2: Annotated bibliography on the protection of minors in a converged media environment

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 09/06/2015

This annotated bibliography aims at completing the IRIS plus on “The protection of minors in a converged media environment” with a basic gateway to the most recent reference documentation available for free on the internet.  More

IRIS Bonus 2015-1: Comparative tables on the protection of minors in audiovisual media services

Authors: Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 08/04/2015

Conceived as a tool for our workshop on “Empowering users: Rating Systems, Protection Tools and Media Literacy across Europe” organised in Strasbourg jointly with the European Platform of Regulatory Authorities (EPRA) in December 2014, these comparative tables aim at giving an overview of the existing obligations across the 28 EU member states with regard to the protection of minors in audiovisual media services and to watershed periods in broadcasting services.  More

IRIS Plus 2011-1: A Landmark for Mass Media in Russia

Authors: Andrei Richter, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre

Published: 06/02/2011

When on 15 June 2010 the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation adopted Resolution No. 16 “On the Judicial Practice Related to the Statute of the Russian Federation ‘On the Mass Media’”, the first international voice applauding this step was that of Dunja Mijatovic, the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, who called it a “landmark resolution” and “a commendable effort to bring Russian court practice in line with international media freedom standards”.  More

IRIS Plus 2000-3: The Financing of Public Service Broadcasting in Selected Central and Eastern European States

Authors: Kerstin Däther & Alexander Scheuer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR)

Published: 01/06/2000

As Illustrated by Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovakia for the year 2000.  More

IRIS Plus 2004-1: Regulation of Minority-Language Broadcasting

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR) of the University of Amsterdam & Andrei Richter, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre (MMLPC)

Published: 01/02/2004

This IRIS plus considers whether - and if so, how – the use of minority languages in broadcasting is protected and promoted. It investigates the examples of Ireland, Latvia, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. This IRIS plus also contains information about the international legal framework which aims to determine how minority languages should be treated.  More

IRIS Plus 2005-2: Regulation of Advertising in the Broadcasting Sector in Countries of the Former USSR

Authors: Dmitry Golovanov, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre

Published: 01/04/2005

This IRIS plus describes the development of radio and TV advertising regulations in the former USSR states and the current situation of advertising law in these countries.  More

IRIS Plus 2006-3: Protection of Minors from Harmful Information in the Law of Post-Soviet States

Authors: Anna Belitskaya, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre

Published: 01/06/2006

The angle chosen in this IRIS plus is to inform about the difficulties of establishing standards, procedures and justified limits to the right to information in countries with a more recent tradition of free mass media and the challenges they pose for protecting the youth.  More

IRIS Plus 2006-4: Cultural and Regional Remits in Broadcasting

Authors: Thorsten Ader, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/08/2006

This edition of IRIS plus explores how broadcasters' remits may be closely bound up with culture and geography. In particular, the following article focuses on legal stipulations about respect for culture and territorial specificities, which have been the subject of transnational or regional agreements.  More

IRIS Plus 2010-4: Public Service Media: Money for Content

Authors: Christian M. Bron, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2010

There have been many public statements on the funding of public service broadcasting and the expectations associated with it. As far as the European Union is concerned, mention might be made of the Communication from the Commission of 27 October 2009 on the application of state aid rules to public service broadcasting (OJ C 257, pp. 1–14) or in the case of the Council of Europe, the Committee of Ministers’ reply of 21 April 2010 welcoming the Parliamentary Assembly’s Recommendation 1878 (2009) on the funding of public service broadcasting.  More

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