Broadcasting

 

IRIS Plus 2014-2: Media in the Courtroom

Authors: Andrei Richter, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 01/09/2014

The model of separation of powers (legislature, executive and judiciary) in its different declinations forms the basis for the political structure of most democratic states in the world. Not formally one of these powers, the press is nevertheless often called “the Fourth Estate” or “the fourth branch of government”, since it provides information to the people on matters of public concern and thereby acts as a guarantee that these state powers do not abuse their prerogatives.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-4: What Is an On-demand Service?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/09/2013

Few songwriters have captured the presentiment of change as Bob Dylan in his song "The Times They Are A-Changin'". Although written in a very particular period of the twentieth Century, its message is universal and therefore can be applied to virtually any moment in time. Indeed, the fight between the Old and the New is a constant in the history of Mankind. In that sense, Dylan's song perfectly fits the Internet age: while old media giants currently struggle with fast-paced technological developments, new online companies started by teenagers in garages and universities are taking the world by storm. The generational gap evoked by Dylan is also evident, with parents feeling that, paraphrasing the song's lyrics, their children's online activities are "beyond their command".  More


IRIS Plus 2013-3: Converged Media: Same Content, Different Laws?

Authors: Alexander Scheuer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2013

Convergence is no longer a future vision but can be experienced in the here and now. At least, this is true for those among us who possess a smart TV and manage to use its full technical potential. At the same time, media professionals never tire of pointing to the fact (and to supporting surveys) that for users traditional television still ranks high or even highest among the different media. Television screens are therefore one likely place for linear and non-linear audiovisual media services to meet. Thanks to the advanced technology employed they can in parallel function as an interface for other communication and information services. This turns television screens into a prime testing ground for consumers who wish to explore combined offers of formerly clearly distinct media and information services. Television screens are therefore also the place where consumers will learn whether or not the current legal framework takes care of their expectations regarding the protection of their interests.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-1: The Digital Switchover

Authors: Andrei Richter, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University

Published: 01/02/2013

The European Commission's report on the telecommunications market and regulatory development (see also IRIS 2012-9/8) describes, among other things, the current status of the introduction of digital television in the EU member states. According to section 5.3.2 of the report, at the time of publication (18 June 2012) it was already clear that Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Greece were the only EU member states that would not have completed the digitisation process before the deadline of 31 December 2012.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-6: Protection of Minors and Audiovisual Content On-Demand

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Cristina Bachmeier, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/11/2012

On-demand services with audiovisual content are continuing to be more and more popular among users. One of the world's best known platforms is no doubt YouTube, which, according to Matthew Glotzbach, the company's EMEA Managing Director, currently has 800 million users a month who upload 72 hours of fi lm material every minute and watch videos totalling 4 billion hours every month (figures quoted from www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Medienwoche-Sender-und-Google-kaempfen-um-die-TV-Hoheit-1697883.html). As can be gathered from the European Commission's First Report on the application of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (COM(2012) 203 fi nal), there are a wide variety of video-on-demand (VoD) services, such as television broadcasters' catch-up TV offerings, which normally enable viewers to access via their websites (a selection of) audiovisual content for up to seven days after it has been aired. In addition, programmes stored on a continuous basis, or at least for a long period, are available from broadcasters' media libraries. In most cases, these services can be used free of charge because private providers in particular fi nance them through revenues from commercial communications.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-5: Must-carry: Renaissance or Reformation?

Authors: Nico van Eijk and Bart van der Sloot, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/09/2012

On 11 July 2012, the Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per il Lazio, an Italian administrative court in Rome decided on a case involving the Italian public service broadcaster RAI (TAR Lazio Decision n. 6320). It found RAI guilty of having violated its charter by encrypting its free-to-air TV channels, which made it impossible for Sky Italia to carry RAI channels on its platform.  More


Media and Protection of Minors in France - TV and Cinema

Authors: Mathias Grenier, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the French regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


The Protection of Children from Harmful Effects of Films in the United States

Authors: Jonathan Perl, Media Center, New York Law School

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions in the United States.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-4: Exclusive Rights and Short Reporting

Authors: Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2012

2012 is often called a year of sports as both the Euro 2012 football championships and the Olympic Games will be held. Of course, there will be or have been world championships in other sports, such as the biathlon, ski flying, figure skating, indoor athletics, table tennis, windsurfing, billiards, cycling, badminton, ice hockey, speedway, shooting, orienteering, rowing, baseball, canoeing, wrestling, the triathlon, jujutsu, karate, dancing and swimming. To these may be added world title fights or matches, for example in boxing or chess, numerous European championships in various sports and even more numerous national championships, ATP tournaments, Formula I racing, FIS ski racing, football Champions League matches, etc.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-2: The Lifespan for Copyright of Audiovisual Works

Authors: Christina Angelopoulos, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/03/2012

Intellectual property rights are one of the tools, if not the tool for rewarding and stimulating creativity. They are attached to many assets which form part of our cultural heritage but which cannot be tagged physically as personal property, as could be, for example, paintings or sculptures. Thanks to intellectual property rights, authors and other rightsholders can cash in on their creative contributions to the making of tangible and intangible audiovisual products in the same way in which others derive money from selling the physical carrier of audiovisual works that they own.  More


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