Communication

 

IRIS Plus 2008-3: User-Generated Content Services and Copyright

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/05/2008

This IRIS plus looks at the EU and US American copyright framework concerning UGC and how it has translated into case law. Suspecting that neither the pending revision of the relevant EU e-commerce Directive nor further court decisions might settle the matter entirely, the article also explores other options for improving the relationship between UGC providers and copyright owners.  More


IRIS Plus 2007-5: A Post-Soviet Perspective on Licensing Television and Radio

Authors: Andrei Richter, Moscow Media Law and Policy Center (MMLPC)

Published: 01/08/2007

This IRIS plus gives an overview of the different legal frameworks for licensing broadcasting in countries of the former Soviet Union, which all share the experience of a relatively recent launching of licensing systems.  More


IRIS Plus 2007-2: Broadcasters' Access to Broadcasting Frequencies

Authors: Nicola Weißenborn, Institute of European Media Law (EMR)

Published: 01/03/2007

The aim of this article is to show how broadcasters obtain their frequencies and who lays down the standards for this process: how is spectrum organised, divided up and ultimately distributed? Who decides on the allocation of transmission capacities and how? This article will also look at new approaches and trends in spectrum management.  More


IRIS Special 2005 - To Have or Not to Have Must-Carry Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

Must-carry rules are one string in the regulators' bow regarding their efforts to ensure that all viewers may enjoy a certain basic content package. The establishment of new distribution platforms for television content (mainly cable) seemed to call this aim into question. It was feared that without legislative intervention incoming platform operators might refuse to carry certain programmes or, alternatively, might use exclusivity contracts to take certain programmes away from traditional carriers. Under either scenario, the viewers' choice of platform would have become synonymous with their choice of content and the idea of universal content would have died.  More


IRIS Special 2005 - Tomorrow's Delivery of Audiovisual Services - Legal Questions Raised by Digital Broadcasting and Mobile Reception

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

After taking stock of developments on the television market generally, this IRIS Special begins with a description of how digital terrestrial television has developed and the different services that have become possible as a result of digitalisation. It then goes on to look at those aspects of particular importance for digital television such as "must carry" obligations, interoperability, and competition. Finally, it addresses the issues raised by "mobile" TV. This issue of IRIS Special also contains a wealth of information about the basic technical and legal considerations associated with electronic media content services. This should be of interest to anyone who comes into contact with such services, whether in the professional or private sphere.  More


IRIS Special 2004 - Digital Television Glossary

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2004

This Digital Television Glossary was commissioned by the Observatory from the Institute of European Media Law (EMR) with a view to creating this IRIS Special and in preparation of the workshop. Concretely, we asked for a description of the functioning of digital television and – in parallel to this – a highlighting of those structures and mechanisms that carry the potential for creating bottlenecks and allowing control over who accesses that particular market.  More


IRIS Special 2004 - Regulating Access to Digital Television - Technical Bottlenecks, Vertically-integrated Markets and New Forms of Media Concentration

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2004

Every single aspect of digital television is affected by the question of access control: the compilation and preparation of content to be transported; the transmission and reception of content (encrypted or not), including the necessary technical devices; content bundling; programme selection aids; and, finally, all the technical precautions that enable the viewer to actually receive content. The more of these elements that are offered by the same service provider, or in other words, the more the market structures are vertically integrated, the more serious the problem of access control becomes. In order to get to the bottom of these issues, in September 2003 the European Audiovisual Observatory, in partnership with the Institute for Information Law (IViR) and with the support of the Institute of European Media Law (EMR), organised a workshop on the theme of Vertical Limits – New Challenges for Media Regulation? The results of this workshop, together with further information, are set out in this IRIS Special.  More


IRIS Special 2003 - Co-Regulation of the Media in Europe

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2003

This publication explains co-regulation, offers current examples of its use and discusses possible areas in which it may be applied. It describes the characteristics and legal requirements of co-regulation, as well as the chances and risks associated with it.  More


IRIS Plus 2003-1: New European Rules for the Communications Sector

Authors: Nico van Eijk, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/02/2003

This article analyses the new EU framework for the communications sector, exploring several of the provisions that are more directly relevant for the audiovisual sector.  More


IRIS Plus 2002-1: Media Supervision on the Threshold of the 21st Century What are the Requirements of Broadcasting, Telecommunications and Concentration Regulation?

Authors: Alexander Scheuer & Peter Strothmann, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/02/2002

The following article is based on the ideas that were brought to a workshop held by the European Audiovisual Observatory and the Institute of European Media Law (EMR).  More


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