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IRIS Plus 2013-5: Audiovisual Heritage 2.0

Authors: Catherine Jasserand, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 12/12/2013

The destruction of the Library of Alexandria is a symbol of knowledge lost forever. Although the facts about this historical event are not entirely clear, the myth of a centralised source of knowledge ravaged by the flames remains in the collective conscience as a reminder of the fragility of cultural heritage.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-2: Open Journalism

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/04/2013

Publish and be damned? The Duke of Wellington's famous phrase could be used to describe the challenges for regulators dealing with the complex legal issues surrounding open journalism. In the age of Internet and the smart phone, we are ALL potentially journalists capable of generating copy, sound and images. From the rise of blogs which allowed private individuals to publish content on their own platform, to the opening of comments sections at the end of newspaper articles, to the inclusion of user generated films in news reports, the "professional" media have come to absorb user generated content as a supplementary source of content. Nowadays the media actively recruit these "open journalists" in order to tap into an additional source of copy. Clearly, this practice brings with it a new array of societal and consequently legal questions. They are only partly covered by the existing legal frameworks, which were designed for media services with less important user input and less inventive media reach out.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-4: Exclusive Rights and Short Reporting

Authors: Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2012

2012 is often called a year of sports as both the Euro 2012 football championships and the Olympic Games will be held. Of course, there will be or have been world championships in other sports, such as the biathlon, ski flying, figure skating, indoor athletics, table tennis, windsurfing, billiards, cycling, badminton, ice hockey, speedway, shooting, orienteering, rowing, baseball, canoeing, wrestling, the triathlon, jujutsu, karate, dancing and swimming. To these may be added world title fights or matches, for example in boxing or chess, numerous European championships in various sports and even more numerous national championships, ATP tournaments, Formula I racing, FIS ski racing, football Champions League matches, etc.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-2: The Lifespan for Copyright of Audiovisual Works

Authors: Christina Angelopoulos, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/03/2012

Intellectual property rights are one of the tools, if not the tool for rewarding and stimulating creativity. They are attached to many assets which form part of our cultural heritage but which cannot be tagged physically as personal property, as could be, for example, paintings or sculptures. Thanks to intellectual property rights, authors and other rightsholders can cash in on their creative contributions to the making of tangible and intangible audiovisual products in the same way in which others derive money from selling the physical carrier of audiovisual works that they own.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-1: Answers to Internet Piracy

Authors: Dmitry Golovanov, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre

Published: 01/01/2012

Internet piracy is a curse to rightsholders and anyone interested in the viability of the creative industry. The latter includes not only governments and representatives of the au- diovisual sector but also consumers who like to enjoy a rich offer of audiovisual content but who might have to cope with less diversity if generating content doesn’t pay for the efforts of content creators.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. II - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (II) Parliamentary Assembly

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many positions adopted by the PACE since June 1995 in no less than 49 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. I - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (I) Committee of Ministers

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many principles and normative requirements adopted by the Council since November 1994 in no less than 57 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Plus 2011-4: Who Pays for Private Copying?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/06/2011

Triangular relationships are not only a challenge in human life but also in legal settings. In the case of private copying levies, the three points of the triangle are the creators of works, legally acting copyists and copyright pirates. Their interaction is to some extent, and possibly not suffi ciently, guided by law.  More


IRIS Plus 2010-6: Switchover to the Digital Dividend

Authors: David Korteweg & Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/12/2010

Like Siamese twins, the switchover to digital television is inseparable from the spectrum liberated as a result of the process. The twin of the switchover is called digital dividend. If we look closer at these twins, we realize that they are non-identical, as far as at least one important point is concerned. Whereas lots of facts and figures are being collected to document how countries are moving from analogue to digital television, much less information seems available on how they might wish to, or are obliged to, use the resulting digital dividend. Admittedly, when it comes to describing developments concerning the digitization of television the usable data are significantly more concrete than they are regarding policies for the digital dividend. And it is these policies that are decisive for determining the use of the freed up spectrum. Tracking policies becomes easier, however, if we take stock of existing legal frameworks within which these policies are being developed. This IRIS plus deals, in its Lead Article, with the rules and regulations currently determining the possible uses of the digital dividend, while its Related Reporting and its Zoom section provide legal and market information relevant to the implementation of digital television.  More


IRIS Plus 2010-5: New Services and Protection of Broadcasters in Copyright Law

Authors: Anne Yliniva-Hoffmann/Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/10/2010

A European Audiovisual Observatory publication had already investigated one aspect of the debate in autumn 2004. In IRIS plus “The Legal Protection of Broadcast Signals”, Lucie Guibault and Roy Melzer described in detail current provisions for the international protection of broadcast signals. Due to the lack of a successful conclusion to the WIPO negotiations, this snapshot from 2004 has remained largely unchanged. Therefore, a description of the legal protection of broadcast signals can, as before, be found in this IRIS plus, which can be downloaded free of charge from http://www.obs.coe.int/oea_publ/iris/iris_plus/ iplus10_2004.pdf .  More


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