On-demand services

 

IRIS Extra 2015-1: Regulation of online content in the Russian Federation

Authors: Andrei Richter (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Journalism) and Anya Richter (University of Pennsylvania, School of Law)

Published: 09/04/2015

This report analyses the regulation of online content in the Russian Federation.  More


IRIS Bonus 2015-1: Comparative tables on the protection of minors in audiovisual media services

Authors: Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 08/04/2015

Conceived as a tool for our workshop on “Empowering users: Rating Systems, Protection Tools and Media Literacy across Europe” organised in Strasbourg jointly with the European Platform of Regulatory Authorities (EPRA) in December 2014, these comparative tables aim at giving an overview of the existing obligations across the 28 EU member states with regard to the protection of minors in audiovisual media services and to watershed periods in broadcasting services.  More


Workshop - Empowering users: rating systems, protection tools and media literacy across Europe

Published: 12/02/2015

Workshop organised by the European Audiovisual Observatory and the European Platform of Regulatory Authorities European Youth Centre, Strasbourg - 15 December 2014  More


IRIS Plus 2014-4: The Influence of New Technologies on Copyright

Authors: Lucie Guibault and João Pedro Quintais, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 04/02/2015

Technology affects economics and economics affects regulation. This is generally how the chain operates. The rules usually come later, and sometimes they may become outdated.  More


IRIS Plus 2014-2: Media in the Courtroom

Authors: Andrei Richter, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 01/09/2014

The model of separation of powers (legislature, executive and judiciary) in its different declinations forms the basis for the political structure of most democratic states in the world. Not formally one of these powers, the press is nevertheless often called “the Fourth Estate” or “the fourth branch of government”, since it provides information to the people on matters of public concern and thereby acts as a guarantee that these state powers do not abuse their prerogatives.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-5: Audiovisual Heritage 2.0

Authors: Catherine Jasserand, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 12/12/2013

The destruction of the Library of Alexandria is a symbol of knowledge lost forever. Although the facts about this historical event are not entirely clear, the myth of a centralised source of knowledge ravaged by the flames remains in the collective conscience as a reminder of the fragility of cultural heritage.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-4: What Is an On-demand Service?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/09/2013

Few songwriters have captured the presentiment of change as Bob Dylan in his song "The Times They Are A-Changin'". Although written in a very particular period of the twentieth Century, its message is universal and therefore can be applied to virtually any moment in time. Indeed, the fight between the Old and the New is a constant in the history of Mankind. In that sense, Dylan's song perfectly fits the Internet age: while old media giants currently struggle with fast-paced technological developments, new online companies started by teenagers in garages and universities are taking the world by storm. The generational gap evoked by Dylan is also evident, with parents feeling that, paraphrasing the song's lyrics, their children's online activities are "beyond their command".  More


IRIS Plus 2013-3: Converged Media: Same Content, Different Laws?

Authors: Alexander Scheuer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2013

Convergence is no longer a future vision but can be experienced in the here and now. At least, this is true for those among us who possess a smart TV and manage to use its full technical potential. At the same time, media professionals never tire of pointing to the fact (and to supporting surveys) that for users traditional television still ranks high or even highest among the different media. Television screens are therefore one likely place for linear and non-linear audiovisual media services to meet. Thanks to the advanced technology employed they can in parallel function as an interface for other communication and information services. This turns television screens into a prime testing ground for consumers who wish to explore combined offers of formerly clearly distinct media and information services. Television screens are therefore also the place where consumers will learn whether or not the current legal framework takes care of their expectations regarding the protection of their interests.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-2: Open Journalism

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/04/2013

Publish and be damned? The Duke of Wellington's famous phrase could be used to describe the challenges for regulators dealing with the complex legal issues surrounding open journalism. In the age of Internet and the smart phone, we are ALL potentially journalists capable of generating copy, sound and images. From the rise of blogs which allowed private individuals to publish content on their own platform, to the opening of comments sections at the end of newspaper articles, to the inclusion of user generated films in news reports, the "professional" media have come to absorb user generated content as a supplementary source of content. Nowadays the media actively recruit these "open journalists" in order to tap into an additional source of copy. Clearly, this practice brings with it a new array of societal and consequently legal questions. They are only partly covered by the existing legal frameworks, which were designed for media services with less important user input and less inventive media reach out.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-6: Protection of Minors and Audiovisual Content On-Demand

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Cristina Bachmeier, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/11/2012

On-demand services with audiovisual content are continuing to be more and more popular among users. One of the world's best known platforms is no doubt YouTube, which, according to Matthew Glotzbach, the company's EMEA Managing Director, currently has 800 million users a month who upload 72 hours of fi lm material every minute and watch videos totalling 4 billion hours every month (figures quoted from www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Medienwoche-Sender-und-Google-kaempfen-um-die-TV-Hoheit-1697883.html). As can be gathered from the European Commission's First Report on the application of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (COM(2012) 203 fi nal), there are a wide variety of video-on-demand (VoD) services, such as television broadcasters' catch-up TV offerings, which normally enable viewers to access via their websites (a selection of) audiovisual content for up to seven days after it has been aired. In addition, programmes stored on a continuous basis, or at least for a long period, are available from broadcasters' media libraries. In most cases, these services can be used free of charge because private providers in particular fi nance them through revenues from commercial communications.  More


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