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Media and Protection of Minors in France - TV and Cinema

Authors: Mathias Grenier, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the French regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


The Protection of Children from Harmful Effects of Films in the United States

Authors: Jonathan Perl, Media Center, New York Law School

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions in the United States.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-4: Exclusive Rights and Short Reporting

Authors: Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2012

2012 is often called a year of sports as both the Euro 2012 football championships and the Olympic Games will be held. Of course, there will be or have been world championships in other sports, such as the biathlon, ski flying, figure skating, indoor athletics, table tennis, windsurfing, billiards, cycling, badminton, ice hockey, speedway, shooting, orienteering, rowing, baseball, canoeing, wrestling, the triathlon, jujutsu, karate, dancing and swimming. To these may be added world title fights or matches, for example in boxing or chess, numerous European championships in various sports and even more numerous national championships, ATP tournaments, Formula I racing, FIS ski racing, football Champions League matches, etc.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-1: Answers to Internet Piracy

Authors: Dmitry Golovanov, Moscow Media Law and Policy Centre

Published: 01/01/2012

Internet piracy is a curse to rightsholders and anyone interested in the viability of the creative industry. The latter includes not only governments and representatives of the au- diovisual sector but also consumers who like to enjoy a rich offer of audiovisual content but who might have to cope with less diversity if generating content doesn’t pay for the efforts of content creators.  More


Die ungarische Regelung für den Schutz der Minderjährigen vor schädlichen Medieninhalten

Authors: Réka Sümegh, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/01/2012

This article was written in German and is available only in German. It describes the Hungarian regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


IRIS Special 2011 - The Regulation of On-demand Audiovisual Services: Chaos or Coherence?

Authors: Susanne NIKOLTCHEV (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 12/12/2011

It is common practice that the European Commission sends fact finding letters to ensure that national laws of all member states correctly implement all aspects of EU directives within the given time frame. The letters addressed in March this year to Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Slovakia and the United Kingdom and in early September to Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary Latvia, Lithuania and Luxembourg with questions concerning the compatibility of national media laws with the rules of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive thus follow the envisaged procedures for clarifying transposition measures.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. II - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (II) Parliamentary Assembly

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many positions adopted by the PACE since June 1995 in no less than 49 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. I - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (I) Committee of Ministers

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many principles and normative requirements adopted by the Council since November 1994 in no less than 57 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Plus 2011-6: Limits to the Use of Personal Data

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Sebastian Schweda, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/10/2011

At the end of September, Facebook announced a plan to extend their service in order to, as it stated, enable users to create a “Life Archive” and thus offer an unlimited number of “friends” all the details and events of their own lives at the click of a mouse. Who would have thought twenty years ago that this project would on no account be understood as a continuation of Orwell’s 1984 but as an offer of a service and business model to be taken seriously? And who would have assumed at that time that, in the light of this and similar services, we would one day be discussing whether and how it would still be possible to exercise control over electronically available personal data? The answer might be that the founding fathers of the European Convention on Human Rights at least considered questions like these to be possible, since there are subjects that lead us to face challenges that date back a long way despite being dressed up in new clothes. In the context of personal data, the answer consists in finding a meaningful balance between the rights to freedom of information and freedom of expression on the one hand and the protection of the personality and the private sphere on the other, and it is these conflicting interests that the Convention has always clearly had in mind.  More


IRIS Plus 2011-5: Why Discuss Network Neutrality?

Authors: Nico van Eijk, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/09/2011

The freedom to receive and impart information is guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of the Council of Europe. As is the case for exercising other fundamental freedoms, the mere recognition of the freedom of expression does not mean that citizens are in a position to enjoy it. For that to happen, they need to be able to communicate with each other, which in the modern world can be made possible through a wide array of communications outlets including the Internet. The European Audiovisual Observatory examines questions related to the exercise of freedom of expression regarding their importance for audiovisual media. In the context of the Internet, this means, for example, looking at the many audiovisual media services that use broadband capacity to reach the consumer or, conversely, at the content that Internet users self-generate and post on Internet platforms. Obviously, the receiving or imparting of content offered by or to audiovisual media services via the Internet presupposes access to communication networks. Whenever such access is restricted we will find somebody to diagnose an impact on the exercise of freedom of expression. Whether this diagnosis is correct and, if this were to be the case, whether the impact qualifi es as undue interference with the freedom of expression is one question discussed under the notion of “network neutrality”. It is the very issue looming in the background of this IRIS plus.  More


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