In the public interest

 

IRIS Plus 2013-2: Open Journalism

Authors: Tarlach McGonagle, Institute for Information Law (IViR), Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/04/2013

Publish and be damned? The Duke of Wellington's famous phrase could be used to describe the challenges for regulators dealing with the complex legal issues surrounding open journalism. In the age of Internet and the smart phone, we are ALL potentially journalists capable of generating copy, sound and images. From the rise of blogs which allowed private individuals to publish content on their own platform, to the opening of comments sections at the end of newspaper articles, to the inclusion of user generated films in news reports, the "professional" media have come to absorb user generated content as a supplementary source of content. Nowadays the media actively recruit these "open journalists" in order to tap into an additional source of copy. Clearly, this practice brings with it a new array of societal and consequently legal questions. They are only partly covered by the existing legal frameworks, which were designed for media services with less important user input and less inventive media reach out.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-1: The Digital Switchover

Authors: Andrei Richter, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University

Published: 01/02/2013

The European Commission's report on the telecommunications market and regulatory development (see also IRIS 2012-9/8) describes, among other things, the current status of the introduction of digital television in the EU member states. According to section 5.3.2 of the report, at the time of publication (18 June 2012) it was already clear that Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Greece were the only EU member states that would not have completed the digitisation process before the deadline of 31 December 2012.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-6: Protection of Minors and Audiovisual Content On-Demand

Authors: Alexander Scheuer and Cristina Bachmeier, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/11/2012

On-demand services with audiovisual content are continuing to be more and more popular among users. One of the world's best known platforms is no doubt YouTube, which, according to Matthew Glotzbach, the company's EMEA Managing Director, currently has 800 million users a month who upload 72 hours of fi lm material every minute and watch videos totalling 4 billion hours every month (figures quoted from www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Medienwoche-Sender-und-Google-kaempfen-um-die-TV-Hoheit-1697883.html). As can be gathered from the European Commission's First Report on the application of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (COM(2012) 203 fi nal), there are a wide variety of video-on-demand (VoD) services, such as television broadcasters' catch-up TV offerings, which normally enable viewers to access via their websites (a selection of) audiovisual content for up to seven days after it has been aired. In addition, programmes stored on a continuous basis, or at least for a long period, are available from broadcasters' media libraries. In most cases, these services can be used free of charge because private providers in particular fi nance them through revenues from commercial communications.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-5: Must-carry: Renaissance or Reformation?

Authors: Nico van Eijk and Bart van der Sloot, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/09/2012

On 11 July 2012, the Tribunale Amministrativo Regionale per il Lazio, an Italian administrative court in Rome decided on a case involving the Italian public service broadcaster RAI (TAR Lazio Decision n. 6320). It found RAI guilty of having violated its charter by encrypting its free-to-air TV channels, which made it impossible for Sky Italia to carry RAI channels on its platform.  More


Media and Protection of Minors in France - TV and Cinema

Authors: Mathias Grenier, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the French regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


The Protection of Children from Harmful Effects of Films in the United States

Authors: Jonathan Perl, Media Center, New York Law School

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions in the United States.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-4: Exclusive Rights and Short Reporting

Authors: Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2012

2012 is often called a year of sports as both the Euro 2012 football championships and the Olympic Games will be held. Of course, there will be or have been world championships in other sports, such as the biathlon, ski flying, figure skating, indoor athletics, table tennis, windsurfing, billiards, cycling, badminton, ice hockey, speedway, shooting, orienteering, rowing, baseball, canoeing, wrestling, the triathlon, jujutsu, karate, dancing and swimming. To these may be added world title fights or matches, for example in boxing or chess, numerous European championships in various sports and even more numerous national championships, ATP tournaments, Formula I racing, FIS ski racing, football Champions League matches, etc.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-3: The Future of State Aid

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/04/2012

As every year, May 2012 will see an edition of the Cannes Film Festival along with a new Golden Palm winner. Less in the news but more important for the industry will be the Cannes Film Market, which takes place in parallel. It will allow over 10,000 film industry professionals from over 100 countries to pick from around 4,000 films of which approximately 1,500 will be screened. And whenever films are at the center of an event, the money issue is never far away– including the question as to how states may (or may not) aid the film industry.  More


IRIS Plus 2012-2: The Lifespan for Copyright of Audiovisual Works

Authors: Christina Angelopoulos, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/03/2012

Intellectual property rights are one of the tools, if not the tool for rewarding and stimulating creativity. They are attached to many assets which form part of our cultural heritage but which cannot be tagged physically as personal property, as could be, for example, paintings or sculptures. Thanks to intellectual property rights, authors and other rightsholders can cash in on their creative contributions to the making of tangible and intangible audiovisual products in the same way in which others derive money from selling the physical carrier of audiovisual works that they own.  More


Die ungarische Regelung für den Schutz der Minderjährigen vor schädlichen Medieninhalten

Authors: Réka Sümegh, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/01/2012

This article was written in German and is available only in German. It describes the Hungarian regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


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