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IRIS Plus 2016-1: On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 03/06/2016

Providers of VoD services originate from almost all links of the audiovisual value chain. They come from the traditional worlds of television channels and telecom operators, but also from film producers and distributors, content aggregators, video sharing platforms and even from audiovisual archives and public support funds. This complexity brings together business models with new actors and new roles, also in addition to the provision of new services and new consumption habits.  More


IRIS Extra 2015-1: Regulation of online content in the Russian Federation

Authors: Andrei Richter (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Journalism) and Anya Richter (University of Pennsylvania, School of Law)

Published: 09/04/2015

This report analyses the regulation of online content in the Russian Federation.  More


IRIS Plus 2013-3: Converged Media: Same Content, Different Laws?

Authors: Alexander Scheuer, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2013

Convergence is no longer a future vision but can be experienced in the here and now. At least, this is true for those among us who possess a smart TV and manage to use its full technical potential. At the same time, media professionals never tire of pointing to the fact (and to supporting surveys) that for users traditional television still ranks high or even highest among the different media. Television screens are therefore one likely place for linear and non-linear audiovisual media services to meet. Thanks to the advanced technology employed they can in parallel function as an interface for other communication and information services. This turns television screens into a prime testing ground for consumers who wish to explore combined offers of formerly clearly distinct media and information services. Television screens are therefore also the place where consumers will learn whether or not the current legal framework takes care of their expectations regarding the protection of their interests.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. II - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (II) Parliamentary Assembly

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many positions adopted by the PACE since June 1995 in no less than 49 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Themes - Vol. I - Freedom of Expression and the Media: Standard-setting by the Council of Europe (I) Committee of Ministers

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2011

This e-book provides valuable insights into the work of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on freedom of expression and the media. It summarises the many principles and normative requirements adopted by the Council since November 1994 in no less than 57 official documents designed to guide the member states of the Council of Europe. It also provides direct access to each of those official documents.  More


IRIS Plus 2010-3: Product Placement

Authors: Christina Angelopoulos, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/05/2010

There are areas of law that are so complex that legislators evidently find it hard to get to grips with them, and one of these areas is presumably product placement. The starting-point for the harmonisation of national solutions, which was the aim of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD), was itself a complicated matter. Despite the legal framework laid down by the “Television without Frontiers” Directive, there was a (presumably correct) impression that product placement was neither really prohibited nor really permitted under EU law. The result was that it was allowed in Austria but banned in Germany but could at any rate be seen on EU TV screens in some American films.  More


IRIS Plus 2008-5: Audiovisual Media Services and the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive

Authors: Jan Kabel, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 01/08/2008

Consumer interests take a prominent place in the law of audiovisual media services. This IRIS plus explains to what extent and why. It also tells its readers how the general legal principles relate to media-specific legislation.  More


IRIS Special 2006 - Audiovisual Media Services without Frontiers - Implementing the Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

Working from the premise that after a revision of the TVwF Directive the rules of the two leading European instruments on broadcasting will be once more re-aligned, this publication seeks to explore the interplay between the Directive and the Convention. It will focus on monitoring and implementation issues that already gave rise to discussions in the past. The revision of the Directive matters only insofar as it may mitigate or intensify existing problems. To be clear, this publication will not deal with the concrete points that might set the two frameworks apart (points, which in any event, only become concrete after the finalisation of the revision of the Directive) until re-alignment takes place.  More


IRIS Special 2005 - Tomorrow's Delivery of Audiovisual Services - Legal Questions Raised by Digital Broadcasting and Mobile Reception

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

After taking stock of developments on the television market generally, this IRIS Special begins with a description of how digital terrestrial television has developed and the different services that have become possible as a result of digitalisation. It then goes on to look at those aspects of particular importance for digital television such as "must carry" obligations, interoperability, and competition. Finally, it addresses the issues raised by "mobile" TV. This issue of IRIS Special also contains a wealth of information about the basic technical and legal considerations associated with electronic media content services. This should be of interest to anyone who comes into contact with such services, whether in the professional or private sphere.  More


IRIS Plus 2005-3: Advertising Law in the Electronic Media

Authors: Kathrin Berger, Institute of European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/06/2005

This edition of IRIS plus deals with EC provisions on advertising, which have evolved into a dense network of regulations.  More


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