Selected countries


IRIS Plus 2016-2: Audiovisual sports rights – between exclusivity and right to information

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 08/07/2016

The increasing relevance of audiovisual sports rights, especially given this summer’s European football championship and Summer Olympics, has prompted us to carry out a comprehensive exploration of the topic.  More

IRIS Extra 2016-2: Public service media in Transcaucasian countries

Authors: Ekaterina Abashina, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 13/07/2016

After detailing the context with some historical notes on their respective media markets and regulatory frameworks, the author discusses the statute of the governing bodies, the financing of PSB, and the appointment procedures of Board members. She then analyses their programming policies and their adaptation to the requirements set by the international organisations of which they are members. Each country is examined individually, with systematic cross-references and a comparative overview of similarities and differences between the three systems.  More

IRIS Plus 2016-1: On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 03/06/2016

Providers of VoD services originate from almost all links of the audiovisual value chain. They come from the traditional worlds of television channels and telecom operators, but also from film producers and distributors, content aggregators, video sharing platforms and even from audiovisual archives and public support funds. This complexity brings together business models with new actors and new roles, also in addition to the provision of new services and new consumption habits.  More

Analysis of the implementation of the provisions contained in the AVMSD concerning the protection of minors

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 21/04/2016

This report examines the issue of protection of minors in the EU28 and looks specifically at the implementation approaches of the AVMS Directive with regard to the following aspects concerning the protection of minors in audiovisual media services: classification systems; definitions of harmful content; tools and systems used by broadcasters and platform operators to support the protection of minors; and studies carried out in the field in the member states.  More

Die ungarische Regelung für den Schutz der Minderjährigen vor schädlichen Medieninhalten

Authors: Réka Sümegh, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/01/2012

This article was written in German and is available only in German. It describes the Hungarian regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More

IRIS Special 2001 - Television and Media Concentration - Regulatory Models on the National and the European Level

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2001

This book is intended first and foremost to contribute to a better understanding of the variety of legal problems and regulations that are relevant to limiting concentrations of power in the medium of television.  More

IRIS Special 2006 - Broadcasters' Obligations to Invest in Cinematographic Production

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2006

This IRIS Special describes the various ways in which the television industry supports cinematographic film – whether enshrined in law or on a voluntary basis, whether direct or indirect. It considers broadcasters' investment obligations in different European countries and investigates whether they are laid down in law, agreed in contracts or entered into voluntarily by broadcasters. It also explains the rules of procedure, discusses what broadcasters might receive in return and mentions some important economic factors. Where necessary or useful, this publication also contains information about national film funding mechanisms.  More

IRIS Special 2005 - To Have or Not to Have Must-Carry Rules

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2005

Must-carry rules are one string in the regulators' bow regarding their efforts to ensure that all viewers may enjoy a certain basic content package. The establishment of new distribution platforms for television content (mainly cable) seemed to call this aim into question. It was feared that without legislative intervention incoming platform operators might refuse to carry certain programmes or, alternatively, might use exclusivity contracts to take certain programmes away from traditional carriers. Under either scenario, the viewers' choice of platform would have become synonymous with their choice of content and the idea of universal content would have died.  More

IRIS Special 2004 - Regulating Access to Digital Television - Technical Bottlenecks, Vertically-integrated Markets and New Forms of Media Concentration

Authors: Susanne Nikoltchev (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/12/2004

Every single aspect of digital television is affected by the question of access control: the compilation and preparation of content to be transported; the transmission and reception of content (encrypted or not), including the necessary technical devices; content bundling; programme selection aids; and, finally, all the technical precautions that enable the viewer to actually receive content. The more of these elements that are offered by the same service provider, or in other words, the more the market structures are vertically integrated, the more serious the problem of access control becomes. In order to get to the bottom of these issues, in September 2003 the European Audiovisual Observatory, in partnership with the Institute for Information Law (IViR) and with the support of the Institute of European Media Law (EMR), organised a workshop on the theme of Vertical Limits – New Challenges for Media Regulation? The results of this workshop, together with further information, are set out in this IRIS Special.  More

IRIS Bonus 2015-2: Annotated bibliography on the protection of minors in a converged media environment

Authors: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 09/06/2015

This annotated bibliography aims at completing the IRIS plus on “The protection of minors in a converged media environment” with a basic gateway to the most recent reference documentation available for free on the internet.  More

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