This new publication series from 2015 covers a selection of topics that are high on the European regulatory agenda, offering comparative and reliable information on a chosen topical issue in the perspective of the ongoing reforms of the legal framework on European and national level.


For each chosen topic, this new publication looks into:

  1. the economic and technological backdrop
  2. the international and European regulatory framework
  3. the national implementation of these provisions
  4. self- and co-regulation
  5. case-law
  6. recent trends.


The former version of the IRIS Plus series (until 2014) was a paid-for publication that featured a combination of a lead article, related reporting and a Zoom section, comprising overview tables, market data or practical information.


All published issues are now available online for free (see below):

IRIS Plus 2016-2: Audiovisual sports rights – between exclusivity and right to information

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 08/07/2016

The increasing relevance of audiovisual sports rights, especially given this summer’s European football championship and Summer Olympics, has prompted us to carry out a comprehensive exploration of the topic.  More

IRIS Plus 2016-1: On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 03/06/2016

Providers of VoD services originate from almost all links of the audiovisual value chain. They come from the traditional worlds of television channels and telecom operators, but also from film producers and distributors, content aggregators, video sharing platforms and even from audiovisual archives and public support funds. This complexity brings together business models with new actors and new roles, also in addition to the provision of new services and new consumption habits.  More

IRIS Plus 2015-3: Copyright enforcement online: policies and mechanisms

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Christian Grece, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 13/01/2016

The ambition of this report is to give a digest of what has happened so far in the field of copyright enforcement online.  More

IRIS Plus 2015-2: Territoriality and its impact on the financing of audiovisual works

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Christian Grece, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 11/09/2015

This report aims to interpret the results of previous research in the light of the concept of territoriality. It focuses in parallel on copyright and media regulation, in order to take a closer look at the impact of the two leading concepts of “territoriality of copyright” and “country of origin” on the financing of audiovisual works in the digital single market, offering insights both into business contractual practices and the investment obligations of the different operators of the value chain.  More

IRIS Plus 2015-1: The protection of minors in a converged media environment

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Sophie Valais (European Audiovisual Observatory) & Amélie Lépinard (Jurist)

Published: 11/06/2015

This publication concentrates on the protection of minors from harmful editorial content delivered over electronic communication networks.  More

IRIS Plus 2014-4: The Influence of New Technologies on Copyright

Authors: Lucie Guibault and João Pedro Quintais, Institute for Information Law (IViR), University of Amsterdam

Published: 04/02/2015

Technology affects economics and economics affects regulation. This is generally how the chain operates. The rules usually come later, and sometimes they may become outdated.  More

IRIS Plus 2014-3: Enabling Access to the Media for All

Authors: Cristina Bachmeier, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 02/12/2014

When it comes to barriers to accessing information and to culture for people with disabilities, the concept becomes immediately multifaceted. Depending on how content as such is conceived, whether it is a library with stairs before an entrance door or an immaterial file requiring the command of additional technological equipment, the concept of a barrier may take on different meanings and require the use of different tools.  More

IRIS Plus 2014-2: Media in the Courtroom

Authors: Andrei Richter, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Published: 01/09/2014

The model of separation of powers (legislature, executive and judiciary) in its different declinations forms the basis for the political structure of most democratic states in the world. Not formally one of these powers, the press is nevertheless often called “the Fourth Estate” or “the fourth branch of government”, since it provides information to the people on matters of public concern and thereby acts as a guarantee that these state powers do not abuse their prerogatives.  More

IRIS Plus 2014-1: The new Cinema Communication

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez & Amélie Lépinard, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/09/2014

Younger generations nowadays take the existence of the European Union for granted. Today’s European adolescents were born into the European Union, so to speak, but it is a very recent development if we take into consideration the history of Europe as a whole. It is an organisation that was not created overnight, not even in seven days, but one that evolved gradually. Some would argue that the EU is still an unfulfilled dream, but despite this much has been achieved since its creation. Among the many advantages that citizens of an EU member state enjoy, the fundamental freedoms enshrined in the EU treaties allow them to move around, do business and live in other EU countries.  More

IRIS Plus 2013-6: How Private is Personal Data?

Authors: Dr Martin Rupp and Mag. Peter Matzneller, Institute for European Media Law (EMR), Saarbrücken/Brussels

Published: 01/05/2014

There is an uneasy relationship between copyright and data protection, the main reason being that the legal rules governing both these areas are based on a potentially conflicting idea. There is a clash of objectives between copyright law and data protection law, but this does not immediately become apparent when the intention of the legislators in each case is compared.  More

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