The publications in the IRIS Special series tackle current issues in media law and related legal fields.

The themes covered are of direct practical relevance and are explored with academic rigour. The particular value of the IRIS Special series lies in its international approach or the comparison of different legal systems as the case may be. Recognised as a reliable source of information, the series has a track record of supplying both the audiovisual industry and also legislators and other decision makers at national and European level with highly useful data, overviews, ideas and analyses. The European Audiovisual Observatory publishes one or two IRIS Specials annually. Depending on their theme, they each contain 50-150 pages. In many cases, background material – standard-setting legal texts for example – is included.

IRIS Special 2020-2: Artificial intelligence in the audiovisual sector

20/01/2021 Authors (in alphabetical order): Mira Burri, Sarah Eskens, Kelsey Farish, Giancarlo Frosio, Riccardo Guidotti, Atte Jääskeläinen, Andrea Pin, Justina Raižytė

In the audiovisual industry, as in other sectors, the increasing use of artificial intelligence is likely to herald a paradigm shift, as it can transform the entire value chain. This new report discusses the opportunities and challenges raised by AI in this sector.

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IRIS Special 2020-1: Media pluralism and competition issues


This IRIS Special 2020-1 report contributes to the debate on the relationship between safeguarding media pluralism and effective competition in the age of digitisation and globalisation, especially with regard to new diversity-relevant phenomena in the digital platform economy.

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IRIS Special 2019-2: Self- and co-regulation in the new AVMSD

06/12/2019 Authors (in alphabetical order) Amedeo Arena, Mark D. Cole, Jan Henrich, Bernardo Herman, Pascal Kamina, Susanne Lackner, Michèle Ledger, Roberto Mastroianni, Gabor Polyak, Andrej Školkay, Jörg Ukrow, Krzysztof Wojciechowski

This publication aims to analyse the system of self- and co-regulation provided for in the revised AVMSD.

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IRIS Special 2019-1: The independence of media regulatory authorities in Europe

26/09/2019 Author: Maja Cappello (ed.). European Audiovisual Observatory

This IRIS Special aims to advance understanding of the ways in which the revised AVMSD may have an impact on current legislation and practices.

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IRIS Special 2018-2: Media law enforcement without frontiers

11/01/2019 Author: Maja Cappello (ed.). European Audiovisual Observatory

This report provides an in-depth overview of relevant issues, from the challenges of law enforcement in the online environment to the scope of intervention of competent public bodies concerning cross-border activities and the practices of regulatory authorities.

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IRIS Special 2018-1: Media reporting: facts, nothing but facts?

05/10/2018 Author: Maja Cappello (ed.). European Audiovisual Observatory

This report provides an overview of how the principles of accuracy, objectivity and fairness in news and current affairs reporting are regulated at European and national level, as well as how they are applied by European media organisations.

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IRIS Special 2017-2: Journalism and media privilege

23/02/2018 Author: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

The report provides an overview of the most recent rules, case law and policies across Europe with regard to the privileges that are given to journalists when exercising their activities.

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IRIS Special 2017-1: Media coverage of elections: the legal framework in Europe

12/07/2017 Author: Maja Cappello (ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

This report provides an overview of the most recent rules, case-law and policies across Europe with regard to the coverage of elections and referenda in the various media. Looking into broadcasting and print media, as well as the online dimension, it gives an insight into the differing degrees of...

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IRIS Special 2016-2: Media ownership - Market realities and regulatory responses

17/01/2017 Authors: Maja Cappello (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

One of the pillars of freedom of expression in the audiovisual sector is media pluralism. This concept covers, on the one hand, the availability of a variety of choice in the programming of the different media players. On the other hand, it concerns the effective presence of a multitude of...

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IRIS Special 2016-1: Regional and local broadcasting in Europe

17/09/2016 Author: Maja Cappello (Ed.), European Audiovisual Observatory

Already when considering the strong differences across the various institutional systems across Europe, the word region” does not have one and only meaning. This is even more true when speaking about media, which do not necessarily reflect administrative structures, but rather give voice to the...

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