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PUBLICATIONS 2019

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Less than one fifth of European films were directed by women in 2017

European Audiovisual Observatory publishes new report on gender of directors of European films.
Strasbourg, France 22/10/2019
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Less than one fifth of European films were directed by women in 2017

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Key insights:

  • Female directors represent 21% of all directors of European films produced between 2003 and 2017. Women tend to direct fewer feature films compared to their male counterparts: 49% of all women directors included in our sample only directed one single feature since 2003.
  • Overall, only 17% of European feature films were directed by women between 2003 and 2017.
  • The share of films by female directors in Europe is growing slowly, reaching 19% in 2017.
  • The prevalence of female directors is higher in documentary than in fiction and animation.

The report aims at helping to quantify the gender imbalance among film directors in Europe. It first provides a general overview of the gender of directors of European films. Then, it looks at the volume and share of films by gender of director, including information on film genres.
The analysis draws on data from the European Audiovisual Observatory’s LUMIERE database, which collates annual admissions to theatrically released films from a variety of sources, including national film agencies.
The study sample comprises a total of 21 054 European feature films produced between 2003 and 2017 and theatrically released between 2003 and 2018.

1. 21% of directors of European films are women

Cumulatively, female directors only represent 21% of all directors in our sample, which corresponds to a total of 2 997 female directors.

Female directors tend to direct fewer films than their male counterparts: 49% of women included in our sample directed only one single film between 2003 and 2017, compared to 40% for men. Only 30% of female directors worked on more than two films during the same time period, compared to 39% for male directors. On average, each female director shot 1.4 films between 2003 and 2017, compared to 1.6 for male directors.

Comparison of output of directors by gender, in % of directors (2003-2017)

Source: European Audiovisual Observatory\ Lumière

 

2. Films by female directors represent 17% of films produced between 2003 and 2017

The analysis identified a total of 3 618 European films directed by women, corresponding to 17% of all films in the sample. This compares to 80% for films by male directors and 3% for films by a group of directors of both genders.

Number of European films produced and released by gender of director (2003-2017)

Source: European Audiovisual Observatory\ Lumière

 

3. The share of films by female directors struggles to take off

Although the number of European films by female directors has been growing, their share of the total number of films is progressing slowly, rising from 15% in 2003 to 19% in 2017. This share has been comparatively stable across the last five years for which data was available.
Significant differences can be observed across Europe: while France is the country with the highest number of films directed by women, the share of female-directed films is higher in medium-sized production countries, led by the Netherlands and Sweden.

% of European feature films by gender of director and year of production (2003-2017)

Source: European Audiovisual Observatory\ Lumière

 

4. Documentary is the film genre with the highest presence of female directors

Among films produced in the period 2013-2017, an average of 25% of documentary features were directed by women, compared to 15% for fiction films and 11% for animation.

European films by gender of director and film genre (annual AVG 2013-2017)

Source: European Audiovisual Observatory\ Lumière

 

Even if the majority of films directed by women are works of fiction, the annual average share of documentary films among films by female directors has significantly increased since 2003, reaching 42% in 2017.

Breakdown of European films by female directors by film genre and by production year (2003-2017)

Source: European Audiovisual Observatory\ Lumière


PUBLICATIONS 2018

21/12/2018 Authors (in alphabetical order) Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Enric Enrich, Julio Talavera Milla, Sophie Valais

IRIS Plus 2018-3: The legal framework for international co-productions

18/12/2018 Author: Martin Kanzler, Film Industry Analyst, Department for Market Information European Audiovisual Observatory

Fiction film financing in Europe: A sample analysis of films released in 2016

21/11/2018 Authors (in alphabetical order) Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Julio Talavera Milla, Sophie Valais European Audiovisual Observatory

IRIS Plus 2018-2: Brexit: The impact on the audiovisual sector

04/10/2018 Author: Laura Ene, Analyst European Television and On-demand Audiovisual Market European Audiovisual Observatory

TV news channels in Europe: Offer, establishment and ownership

20/09/2018 Authors:Nevafilm Research/ European Audiovisual Observatory

Key trends in Russian cinema

05/06/2018 Authors (in alphabetical order) Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Ismail Rabie, Sophie Valais

IRIS Plus 2018-1: The legal framework for video-sharing platforms

05/06/2018 Authors: Gilles Fontaine, Christian Grece & Marta Jimenez Pumares, European Audiovisual Observatory

Online video sharing: Offerings, audiences, economic aspects

02/03/2018 Authors: Christian Grece, Marta Jiménez Pumares, European Audiovisual Observatory

The origin of TV content in VOD catalogues - 2017 Edition

02/03/2018 Authors: Christian Grece, Marta Jiménez Pumares, European Audiovisual Observatory

The origin of films in VOD catalogues – 2017

26/01/2018 Authors: Carolina Arias Burgos, Alexandra Poch, Franciska Schönherr (European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights (European Union Intellectual Property Office)), Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Gilles Fontaine, Sophie Valais (European Audiovisual Observatory)

IRIS Plus 2017-3: Deposit systems for audiovisual works

09/10/2017 Author: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, Maja Cappello, Christian Grece, Sophie Valais, European Audiovisual Observatory

IRIS Plus 2017-2: Commercial communications in the AVMSD revision

2017  2016  2015  2014  2013

2017

Capello M. (ed.)
Deposit systems for audiovisual works           Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2017-3, European Audiovisual Observatory


Cappello M. (ed.)
Commercial communications in the AVMSD revision    Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2017-2, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2017


Cappello M. (ed.)
Media coverage of elections: the legal framework in Europe   Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Special, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2017


Cappello M. (ed.)
Exceptions and limitations to copyright    Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2017-1, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2017


Ene L.
Media Ownership: Children’s TV channels in Europe - Who are the key players?
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2017


Fontaine G. (ed.)
Yearbook 2016 - Key trends
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2017


Fontaine G.
The visibility of films and TV content on VOD
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, Novevmber 2017


Fontaine G. and Grece C.
Origin of films and TV content in VOD catalogues in the EU & Visibility of films on VOD services
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, November 2016


Fontaine G. and Simone P.
The access to film works in the collections of Film Heritage Institutions in the context of education and research
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, May 2017


Fontaine G. and Simone P.
VOD distribution and the role of aggregators
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, May 2017


Grece C.
Trends in the EU SVOD market - 2017 Edition
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg,  November 2017


Grece C.
The circulation of EU non-national films - A sample study: Cinema, television and transactional video on-demand
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, November 2017


Grece C.
The presence of broadcasters on video sharing platforms
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, October 2016


Grece C.
The online advertising market in the EU - Update 2015 and Focus on programmatic advertising
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, November 2016


Kanzler M. and Talavera Milla J.
FOCUS 2017 - World Film Market Trends       
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, April 2017


Schneeberger A.
Audiovisual services in Europe - Focus on services targeting other countries
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, June 2017

 

2016

Cappello M. (ed.)
Mapping of media literacy practices and actions in EU-28
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
Freedom of Expression, the Media and Journalists. Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (edition 2016)
IRIS Themes, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
Smart TV and data protection        Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Special, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
Regional and local broadcasting in Europe        Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Special, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
Media ownership - Market realities and regulatory responses       Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Special, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
VOD, platforms and OTT: which promotion obligations for European works?   Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2016-3, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
Audiovisual sports rights – between exclusivity and right to information   Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2016-2, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Cappello M. (ed.)
On-demand services and the material scope of the AVMSD  Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Plus 2016-1, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Fontaine G. (ed.)
Yearbook 2015 - Key trends
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Fontaine G. (ed.)
Films on television: Origin, age and circulation
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Fontaine G. and Kevin D. (ed.)
Media ownership: towards pan-European groups?
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Fontaine G. and Simone P. (ed.)
The Exploitation of Film Heritage Works in the Digital Era
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Fontaine G. and Schneeberger A. (ed.)
Panorama Report: Linear and on-demand audiovisual media services in Europe 2015
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Gorskaya T., Ivanova V., Kustov V., Leontyeva X., Luzhin A. and Trifonova J.
Film Production and Co-Production in Russia, and the Export of Russian Films Abroad
Nevafilm Research/European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Горская T., Иванова В., Кустов В., Леонтьева К., Лужин А., Трифонова Ю.
Кинопроизводство И Копродукция В России.  Экспорт Российских Фильмов За Рубеж
Невафильм Research/Европейская аудиовизуальная обсерватория, 2016


Grece C. (ed.)
How do films circulate on VOD services and in cinemas in the European Union?
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Kanzler M. (ed.)
The Circulation of European Films Outside Europe in 2015
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Kanzler M. and Talavera J. (ed.)
Focus 2016. Word Film Market Trends. Tendances du marché mondial du film
Edited by the European Audiovisual Observatory
Marché du film / Festival de Cannes, Paris, 2016


Kevin D. and Schneeberger A.
Access to TV platforms: must-carry rules, and access to free-DTT
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Vorontsova A. and Leontyeva X (ed.)
Focus on the Audiovisual Industry in the Russian Federation
Nevafilm Research/European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016


Воронцова А., АЦ Vi Леонтьева К. (ed.)
Взгляд На Аудиовизуальную Индустрию Российской Федерации
Невафильм Research/Европейская аудиовизуальная обсерватория, 2016


Talavera J. (ed.)
Public financing for film and television content - The state of soft money in Europe
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2016

 

2015

Cappello M. (ed.)
Freedom of Expression, the Media and Journalists: Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (Edition 2015)
IRIS Themes Vol. III, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Annotated bibliography on copyright enforcement online
IRIS Bonus 2015-5, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Annotated bibliography on territoriality and its impact on the financing of audiovisual works
IRIS Bonus 2015-4, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Public service media remit in 40 European countries
IRIS Bonus 2015-3, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Copyright enforcement online: policies and mechanisms
IRIS Plus 2015-3, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Territoriality and its impact on the financing of audiovisual works
IRIS Plus 2015-2, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cabrera Blázquez F.J., Cappello M. and Valais S. (ed.)
IRIS 2015 - Legal Observations of the European Audiovisual Observatory
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
The protection of minors in a converged media environment
IRIS Plus 2015-1, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Annotated bibliography on the protection of minors in a converged media environment 
IRIS Bonus 2015-2, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Cappello M. (ed.)
Online activities of public service media: remit and financing Print version available on our online shop
IRIS Special, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Ene L. and Grece C.
Origin of films in VOD catalogues in the EU 
DGCNCT Note 4, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Ene L. and Kevin D.
European fiction works on TV channels
DGCNCT Note A3, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Fontaine G.
Trends in linear television revenues 
DGCNCT Note B1, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Fontaine G.
The visibility of film on on-demand platforms: Germany, France and the United Kingdom 
DGCNCT Note 5, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Fontaine G. and Grece C.
Measurement of fragmented audiovisual audiences
DGCNCT Note 1, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Fontaine G. and Grece C.
Online advertising in the EU - Update 2014 
DGCNCT Note 2, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Fontaine G. and Schneeberger A.
Origin and availability of on-demand services in the European Union
DGCNCT Note A2, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Grece C. and Croce L.
The SVOD market in the EU developments 2014/2015
DGCNCT Note B2, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Grece C. and Croce L.
Trends in video-on-demand revenues 
DGCNCT Note 3, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Grece C., Lange A., Schneeberger A. and Valais S.
The development of the European market for on-demand audiovisual services
Report prepared by the European Audiovisual Observatory under a contract with the European Commission’s DG Connect, Strasbourg, March 2015


Jimenez M., Kevin D. and Talavera J.
Focus on Animation
Produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015 (Downloadable from the European Commission's website)


Jimenez M., Simone P., Kevin D., Ene L. and Talavera J.
Mapping the Animation Industry in Europe
European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015 (Downloadable from the European Commission's website)


Kanzler M.
The Theatrical Market of European Films Outside of Europe - Key Figures 2014
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Kanzler M. and Talavera J.
Focus 2015. Word Film Market Trends. Tendances du marché mondial du film
Edited by the European Audiovisual Observatory
Marché du film / Festival de Cannes, Paris, May 2015


Kevin D.
Investments in original content by audiovisual services
DGCNCT Note B3, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Kevin D.
Snapshot: Regional and local television in Spain
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Kevin D.
Snapshot: Regional and local television in the United Kingdom
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Lange A.
Fiction on European TV channels (2006-2013)
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Lange A. (ed.)
Yearbook 2014 - Television, cinema, video and on-demand audiovisual services - the pan-European picture Publication available on our online shop
European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Richter Andrei & Richter Anya
Regulation of online content in the Russian Federation
IRIS Extra, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015


Schneeberger A.
Origin and availability of television services in the European Union
DGCNCT Note A1, produced by the European Audiovisual Observatory on behalf of the European Commission, Strasbourg, 2015


Valais S.
Comparative tables on the protection of minors in audiovisual media services 
IRIS Bonus 2015-1, European Audiovisual Observatory, Strasbourg, 2015

 

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Yearbook Online Service 2019/2020

The BEST SOURCE OF DATA on:• television • film • video • on-demand audiovisual services in 40 European countries and Morocco

Published: 16/11/2019

► 400 tables collecting more than 25 000 data
► 40 country data sheets
► Data from 2014 to 2018

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