Other publications

Third-party publication: The tax-based funding of the Finnish public service broadcaster Yle

Authors: Marina Österlund-Karinkanta, Yle

Published: 16/08/2016

As of 1 January 2013 a public broadcasting tax, the Yle tax, replaced the television (licence) fee as the source of funding for the Finnish public service broadcaster, Yle. This article describes the new funding model and how it has worked during its 3 ½ years so far. It is an innovative tax model built on and designed to suit the specific circumstances in Finland, with the aim of safeguarding Yle’s independence and the long-term development of its content services.  More


Analysis of the implementation of the provisions contained in the AVMSD concerning the protection of minors

Authors: European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 21/04/2016

This report examines the issue of protection of minors in the EU28 and looks specifically at the implementation approaches of the AVMS Directive with regard to the following aspects concerning the protection of minors in audiovisual media services: classification systems; definitions of harmful content; tools and systems used by broadcasters and platform operators to support the protection of minors; and studies carried out in the field in the member states.  More


La protection des mineurs dans le domaine des médias en République tchèque

Authors: Evelýna Dreiseitlová, Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel

Published: 01/12/2012

[This text is only available in French] Le présent article aborde le thème de la protection des mineurs dans le domaine des médias en République tchèque en deux parties : la première partie concerne le domaine de la télédiffusion et des services de médias audiovisuels à la demande en y incluant les aspects de la publicité, tandis que la seconde traite de la protection des mineurs telle qu'elle est appliquée dans le secteur cinématographique.  More


Media and Protection of Minors in France - TV and Cinema

Authors: Mathias Grenier, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the French regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


The Protection of Children from Harmful Effects of Films in the United States

Authors: Jonathan Perl, Media Center, New York Law School

Published: 26/06/2012

This article describes the regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions in the United States.  More


Die ungarische Regelung für den Schutz der Minderjährigen vor schädlichen Medieninhalten

Authors: Réka Sümegh, European Audiovisual Observatory

Published: 01/01/2012

This article was written in German and is available only in German. It describes the Hungarian regulation on the protection of minors concerning cinematographic and other audiovisual productions.  More


Plagiarism: an original sin?

Authors: Francisco Javier Cabrera Blázquez, OBS.

Published: 01/09/2004

To understand fully the difference between unethical plagiarism and copyright infringement, one must first and foremost look at the interests that each of these norms protect. The ethical rule against plagiarism protects first of all the original author's reputation but also the interests of third parties, like readers and academic or professional institutions, so that these parties are not led into believing that the plagiarist has created an original work. In contrast, the aim of copyright is solely to protect the author's interests (of both moral and economic nature). This legal protection is achieved by giving him/her certain exclusive rights to exert control over his/her work.  More